Indianerne i Paraguay

Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.


Republic of Paraguay, República del Paraguay. 4,893,000 (1995). 50,000 speakers of American Indian languages not counting Paraguayan Guaraní (Adelaar 1991). Literacy rate 81% to 90%. Also includes Chinese 7,500. Information mainly from M. Ulrich SIL 1988-1995; ANG 1982. Christian, secular, traditional religion. Blind population 4,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 3. Data accuracy estimate: B. The number of languages listed for Paraguay is 23. Of those, 21 are living languages, 1 is a second language without mother tongue speakers, and 1 is extinct.

ACHÉ ("GUAIAQUI", "GUAYAKÍ", "GUOYAGUI", GUAYAKI-ACHE, AXE, ACHE) [GUQ] 900 (1995). Eastern, Alto Paraná, Caaguazú, Chopa Pou, Cerro Moroti, and Puerto Barra reservations, and Tupa Renda. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarani (I). Speakers are becoming bilingual in Paraguayan Guaraní. Reported to be two dialects. Scattered and nomadic. The name "Guayakí" is derogatory. Dictionary. Hunter-gatherers. Bible portions 1978.

Se også HER

ANGAITE (ANGATE, ENLIT, COYAVITIS) [AIV] 4,000 (1991 SIL). Southeast Chaco, Presidente Hayes Department, Boqueron, San Carlos. Mascoian. Second language is Paraguayan Guaraní. Related to Northern Lengua, but a distinct language; 85% lexical similarity. Some older people are monolingual. Many young people speak only Guaraní, but still seem to understand Angaite. Bible portions 1994-1995. Work in progress.

AYOREO (MOROTOCO, MORO, AYORÉ, PYETA YOVAI) [AYO] 3,000 in Paraguay (1991); 1,000 to 1,500 in Bolivia; 4,000 to 4,500 total. Chaco and northern Alto Paraguay departments. Zamucoan. Dialect: TSIRACUA. Partially nomadic. NT 1982. Bible portions 1957-1985.

CHAMACOCO (ISHIRO, JEYWO) [CEG] 1,800 (1991 Ulrich SIL). Northeastern Chaco, eastern Alto Paraguay Department, Puerto Bahia Negra, Puerto Diana, Puerto Esperanza (On+ch+tah), Dos Estrellas, Potrerito, Fuerte Olimpo, along the Paraguay River. Zamucoan. Dialects: CHAMACOCO BRAVO (TOMARAHO, TOMARAXA), EBITOSO (ISHIRO). Language use is vigorous by all ages. Bilingual proficiency in Spanish and Guaraní is limited. Access by boat, air, or jeep road. Traditionally hunter-gatherers. Presently agriculturalists; animal husbandry: sheep, goats, pigs, cows, horses, poultry; ranch hands; day laborers; maids; basketry; wood carvers; selling alligator skins. Bible portions 1992-1995. Work in progress.

CHIRIGUANO (GUASURANGO, GUARAYO, EASTERN BOLIVIAN GUARANÍ, "CHAWUNCU") [GUI] 2,000 in Paraguay; 15,000 in Argentina; 15,000 in Bolivia; 32,000 total. Chaco. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarani (I). Called 'Guasurango', 'Guarayo' or 'Chiriguano' in Paraguay. Different from Guarayo of Bolivia or Huarayo (Ese Ejja) of Peru and Bolivia. "Chawuncu" is a derogatory name. NT 1974. Bible portions 1931-1964.

CHIRIPÁ (TSIRIPÁ, TXIRIPÁ, AVA, AVA GUARANÍ, APYTARE, NHANDEVA, ÑANDEVA) [NHD] 7,000 in Paraguay (1991); 4,900 in Brazil (1995 AMTB); 11,000 in all countries, or more. Eastern Paraguay. Also in Argentina. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarani (I). Dialect: APAPOCUVA. Most speakers are of the Apapocuva group, which has been described by ethnographers. Close to Paraguayan Guaraní, but a separate language. Fewer Spanish loan words than Guaraní. Many are assimilating to Guaraní. Called 'Chiripá' in Paraguay, 'Nhandeva' in Brazil. 'Ñandeva' is used in the Chaco in Paraguay to refer to Tapiete, a different but related language. Bible portions 1991. Work in progress.

CHOROTE, IYO'WUJWA (MANJUY, MANJUI, CHOROTI) [CRQ] 500 in Paraguay (1991 SIL); 1,500 in Argentina; a couple of families in Bolivia (1991 Drayson); 2,000 total. Pilcomayo, Boquerón, Chaco. Mataco-Guaicuru, Mataco. Almost 100% are monolingual in Paraguay. Only leaders know some Guaraní and Spanish. Bible portions 1992. Work in progress.

CHULUPÍ (CHURUPI, CHULUPIE, CHULUPE, NIVACLÉ, ASHLUSHLAY, AXLUSLAY) [CAG] 18,000 in Paraguay (1991 SIL), 200 in Argentina; 18,200 total. Chaco, Presidente Hayes Department, Boquerón. Mataco-Guaicuru, Mataco. Dialects are inherently intelligible. The home language is Chulupí, and language use is vigorous by all Chulupí. There are radio programs and bilingual education in Chulupí. Mataguayo languages in Paraguay are less similar than Mascoi languages in Paraguay (Fasold 1984). Bible 1995. NT 1973. Bible portions 1969.

EMOK (TOBA-EMOK, TOBA, PARAGUAYAN TOBA) [EMO] (630 in ethnic group; 1981 census). Near Asunción. Eastern Chaco. Mascoian. They speak Toba mainly, but the women speak Lengua in the home. Agriculturalists, fishermen, hunters. Extinct.

GERMAN, STANDARD [GER] 166,000 in Paraguay including 19,000 who are also mother tongue speakers of Plautdietsch; 198,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Germanic, West, Continental, High. Bible 1466-1982. NT 1522-1983. Bible portions 1522-1987.

GUANA (KASKIHÁ, CASHQUIHA) [GVA] 500 to 600 (1991 SIL). Boquerón, Salado River, south of Chamacoco, north of Sanapaná, Loma Plata. Mascoian. Dialects: LAYANA (NIGUECACTEMIGI), ECHOALDI (ECHONOANA, CHARARANA). A separate Guana (Kinikinao) is in Mato Grosso, Brazil, related to Chané of Argentina and Terena of Brazil (Arawakan; Voegelin and Voegelin 1977.284, 216; Ruhlen 1987.374, 375; Branislava Susnik). Unconfirmed reports of some Guana in Bolivia. Closely related to Sanapaná. Many live in large villages divided into two sections based on kinship; others live in scattered groups. Some intermarriage with other language groups. Increasing use of Paraguayan Guaraní as second language. Agriculturalists: maize; hunters, fishermen. Survey needed.

 GUARANÍ, MBYÁ (MBYÁ, MBUA) [GUN] 7,000 in Paraguay (1995 SIL); 5,000 in Brazil (1995 SIL); 12,000 in all countries, or more.


Also in Argentina. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarani (I). 75% lexical similarity with Paraguayan Guaraní. Some Chiripá may live among them. They use a special vocabulary, ayvu porã, ffor ritual purposes. Traditionally hunter-gatherers. NT 1987. Bible portions 1971-1976.

GUARANÍ, PARAGUAYAN (AVAÑE'E~) [GUG] 4,648,000 in Paraguay (1995), 95% of the population; hundreds of thousands in Argentina in regions bordering Paraguay. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarani (I). Dialect: JOPARÁ (YOPARÁ). 52% of rural Paraguayans are monolingual in Guaraní. Used some in education. 80% lexical similarity with Chiriguano and 75% lexical similarity with Mbyá. One speaker of Chiripá indicated it was bilingualism rather than linguistic closeness that made Paraguayan Guaraní intelligible to him, Jopará is the colloquial form mixed with Spanish loanwords, used by 90% of the population in and around Asunción. National language. Typology: SVO. Bible in press (1996). NT 1913-1977. Bible portions 1905-1994.

LENGUA [LEG] 10,000 (1991). Chaco, Presidente Hayes Department, Boquerón. Mascoian. Dialects: NORTHERN LENGUA (EENTHLIT, VOWAK, LENGUA NORTE), SOUTHERN LENGUA (LENGUA SUR). Differences between the two dialects are reported to be mainly phonological and orthographic. Southern Lengua are semi-nomadic, and the women are less bilingual. Southern: agriculturalists; pastoralists: cattle, sheep, horses; hunter-gatherers, fishermen. Bible in press (1996). NT 1970-1992. Bible portions 1900-1987.

MACA (TOWOLHI, MAKA, MAK'Á, ENIMACA, ENIMAGA) [MCA] 1,000 (1991 SIL). Southwestern, Presidente Hayes Department, Colonia Juan Belaieff Island in Paraguay River west of Asunción. Many were taken to Asunción. Mataco-Guaicuru, Mataco. Alternate names may be 'Nynaka', 'Toothle'. Men are more bilingual in Spanish than women. Language use is vigorous by all Maca. Artifact craftsmen, hunters, agriculturalists. NT 1985.

MASKOY PIDGIN [MHH] Puerto Victoria. Pidgin, Mascoian based. A mixed language formerly used in a tannin factory with Lengua, Sanapana, Angaite, Guana, and Toba-Maskoy influences. Different from Toba-Maskoy. Speakers are reported to have returned to former areas and languages, or to Guaraní-speaking rural areas. Second language only. No mother tongue speakers.

PAI TAVYTERA (PAI, TAVYTERA, AVA) [PTA] 10,000 to 12,000 (1991 SIL). Eastern, Colonia Juan Carlos. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarani (I). 70% lexical similarity with Kaiwá of Brazil. Work in progress.

PLAUTDIETSCH (LOW GERMAN) [GRN] 38,000 first language speakers in Paraguay, including 19,000 who speak Plautdietsch and Standard German both as mother tongue; 306,000 in all countries of whom 150,000 speak it habitually. Chaco and eastern Paraguay; towns of Filadelfia, Menno Colony, Loma Plata, Neuland. Also Canada, USA, many Latin American countries, Russia, Kazakhstan, Germany. Indo-European, Germanic, West, Continental, Low. Agriculturalists: dairy, grain, cotton, peanuts. Christian. NT 1987. Bible portions 1984-1986.

SANAPANÁ (QUIATIVIS, QUILYACMOC, LANAPSUA, SAAPA, SANAM) [SAP] 2,900 (1991 SIL). Chaco, north of Angaite and Lengua; Boquerón, Presidente Hayes Department, Galbán River. Large concentrations at Salazar Ranch, La Patria, and Esperanza. Mascoian. Very limited understanding of Lengua and Guarani. Children do not go to school. Some of the older people are monolingual. Vigorous language use by all ages. An alternate name may be 'Kasnatan'. Agriculturalists, plantation laborers, tannin factor workers, cattle hands. Work in progress.

SPANISH [SPN] 110,000 in Paraguay (1979 estimate); 266,000,000 in all countries (1987 Time). Mainly Asunción. Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Ibero-Romance, North, Central. Urban areas. Used in education and government. National language. Bible 1553-1979. NT 1543-1986. Bible portions 1514-1985.

TAPIETÉ (GUASURANGO, GUASURANGUE, TIRUMBAE, YANAIGUA, ÑANAGUA) [TAI] 1,800 in Paraguay (1991 SIL); 100 in Argentina (1982 Drayson ANG); 40 in Bolivia; 2,000 total. Chaco, northwestern border area, Laguna Negra reservation. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarani (I). Linguistically between Chiriguano and Paraguayan Guaraní. Reported to be bilingual in Paraguayan Guaraní. Some are bilingual in Spanish. Speakers have reservations about use of their language except within their culture. Survey needed.

TOBA (TOBA QOM, QOM) [TOB] 700 in Paraguay (1991 SIL); 15,000 to 20,000 in Argentina (1981 A. Buckwalter MEN); 100 possibly in Bolivia; 15,800 to 20,800 total. 60 km. northwest of Asunción, Franciscan mission. Mataco-Guaicuru, Guaicuruan. Different from Toba-Maskoy and Toba-Pilagá. NT 1980. Bible portions 1964-1967.

TOBA-MASKOY (TOBA OF PARAGUAY, QUILYILHRAYROM, CABANATIT, MACHICUI, ENENLHIT) [TMF] 2,500 (1991 SIL). Reserve of 30,000 hectares near Puerto Victoria and Puerto Guaraní, eastern Chaco. Mascoian. Men 40 years and older speak Paraguayan Guaraní, others use it as second language, and it is used as the church language. They are reported to speak a 'poor' variety of Paraguayan Guarani. Young people speak Toba-Maskoy and learn some Spanish in school. Different from Toba Qom, Toba-Pilagá of Argentina, Maskoy of Paraguay, or Maskoy Pidgin. Survey needed.

Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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